Lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a common cause of lower back pain. Over time, these natural shock absorbers wear out and degenerate. Degenerative disc disease is not actually a disease but refers to the changes in the spine that occur as a part of the normal ageing process.
Cervical degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a misnomer as it is not a disease but a condition that affects the strength, resiliency and structural integrity of the intervertebral discs due to increasing age, trauma, injury, repetitive movement, improper posture, or poor body mechanics.
Osteoporosis is a bone disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and density resulting in brittle, fragile bones that are more susceptible to fractures. The condition most commonly affects elderly women. Osteoporosis-related fractures are more common at the vertebral bodies of the spine.
Scoliosis is a condition characterized by the abnormal curvature of the spine that causes a deviation to one side. It causes a physical deformity, making the spine look like the letter “C” or “S” instead of the letter “I”. Scoliosis can affect either the mid or lower back. Scoliosis of the mid back is more common. Scoliosis can occur at any age.
The spine has three gentle curves, when viewed from the side and appears to be straight when viewed from the front. When these curves are exaggerated or pronounced, problems can occur such as back pain, breathing difficulties, and fatigue. Common spinal deformities include scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis.
A spine tumour is the abnormal growth of uncontrolled tissues or cells in and around the spinal cord. Tumours can either be cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign). Tumours that begin in the spine are called primary spinal tumours. Tumours that spread to the spine from other parts such as the breast, prostate, lung, and other areas are called secondary spinal tumours.
The different types of spinal fractures include cervical fractures, fracture of the lumbar and thoracic spine and vertebral compression fracture.
A spinal infection is described as an infection of the spine. It can occur in various locations of the spine i.e., intervertebral disc space, vertebral column, spinal canal and nearby soft tissues.
Back pain or backache is the pain felt in the back that may originate from damage to the muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the spine. Back pain is one of the most common medical problems experienced by most people at some time in their life.